Gum disease is an infection of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. It is a major cause of tooth loss in adults. As is usually painless, you may not know you have it. Also known as periodontal disease, the cause of it is the plaque forming bacteria on teeth constantly. 

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There are two large groups of periodontal diseases. When only the gum affected, causing a reversible inflammatory process is called gingivitis.
If gingivitis maintained long and also other factors (genetic, environmental, local, …) are given, the periodontitis is started, in which, besides the aforementioned swelling gum deeper destruction occurs affecting to other tissues of the periodontium, i.e., alveolar bone, cementum of the tooth and periodontal ligament. This destruction is also irreversible, and promotes further progression of the disease, creating a space underneath the gum called periodontal pocket, where increasing numbers of bacteria that can threaten the survival of the pile teeth.

Gingivitis: The mildest form of periodontal disease. Causes the gums to become red, swollen and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort at this stage. Gingivitis is reversible if treated professionally and with good oral care at home.

Initial Periodontitis: If gingivitis is not treated, it can progress to periodontitis. In this mild stage, periodontal disease begins to destroy the bone and tissue that support the teeth.

Moderate to advanced periodontitis: Moderate to advanced periodontitis develops if the early stages of the disease are neglected. This is the most advanced form of the disease occurs where extensive loss of bone and tissue

- Soft gums, swollen or red.
- Bleeding when brushing or flossing.
- Gums that emerge from the teeth.
- Loose or separating teeth.
- Pus between the gum and tooth abscesses and boils.
- Mal continuous encouragement.
- Change in the way teeth fit together when you bite.
- Change in the fit of partial dentures.
- Increased tooth sensitivity, especially to cold

The goal of treatment is to eliminate the infection that causes the disease. Once the infection is controlled, destructive bone process stops and thus can maintain healthy teeth and periodontal tissues. Depending on the amount of support destroyed bone, teeth once treated will have better or worse prognosis from a functional standpoint. It is therefore important, early treatment. Sometimes treatment techniques have aimed not only to control the infection, but also the regeneration of periodontal tissue destroyed.

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